PINE (Pinus sylvestris)
Plant Family Pinaceae
Scotch pine, Norway pine
Scots pine is native to Baltic states, Scandinavia, Germany and it is also cultivated in some U.S. states.
The needles have been used medicinally for hundreds of years to relieve nervous exhaustion, for rheumatism, and by the Native Americans as an insect repellent. It is used extensively in disinfectants, detergents, insecticides and paint manufacture, in the paper industry and in perfumery, especially for bath crystals and soaps.
Steam distillation of the needles. An inferior grade oil is also extracted from the cones, twigs and wood chippings, but this is not recommended for aromatherapy.
It is necessary up to 500 kg of fresh Pine needles to obtain 1 kg of essential oil.
Gum, or common turpentine, is obtained by tapping pine trees. It is a solution of gum in essential oil called gum turpentine.
Nature of the Oil
A colourless to pale yellow liquid. The aroma is strong, dry and balsamic with a camphoraceous undertone. The odour effect is refreshing, cooling and enlivening
Perfumery Note – Middle to Base. The aroma lasts two to six days.
|apha-Pinene||20.3 – 4 5.8%|
|beta-Pinene||1.9 – 33.3%|
|sigma-3-Carene||0.4 – 31.8%|
|beta-Phellandrene||0.3 – 10.9%|
|sigma-Cadinene||tr – 9.5%|
|Camphene||1.6 – 9.4%|
|alpha-Muurolene||tr – 7.8%|
|beta-Bisabolene||0 – 6.3%|
|gamma-Cadinene||tr – 5.4%|
|(+)-Limonene||0.7 – 5.2%|
|Caryophyllene oxide||0.0 – 4.9%|
|Bornyl acetate||0.0 – 4.2%|
|beta-Myrcene||2. 1 – 3.8%|
|Longifolene||0.0 – 3. 5%|
|alpha-Terpinene||0.1 – 3. 2%|
|Terpinolene||tr – 3.0%|
|1,8-Cineole||0.0 – 2.9%|
|alpa-Cadinol||0.0 – 2.7%|
|Fenchone||0.0 – 2.1%|
|gamma-Muurolene||0.0 – 2.0%|
|alpha-Terpineol||0.0 – 1.9%|
|alpha-Caryophyllene||tr – 1.8%|
|(Z) -beta-Ocimene||0.0 – 1.8%|
|Chamazulene||0.0 – 1.7%|
|(E) – beta-Ocimene||0.0 -1.5%|
|Germacrene D||0.0 – 4%|
Antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic (pulmonary, urinary, hepatic), antiviral, bactericidal, balsamic, cholagogue, circulatory stimulant, deodorant, insecticidal, restorative, rubefacient, stimulant of the adrenal cortex and the nerves, vermifugal.
Pine has a refreshing and ‘opening effect. It may be added to massage and bath oils and also is excellent in steam inhalations. Pine has reviving effect on the nervous system and can be used to treat nervous exhaustion and poor concentration.
The main action of pine is on the respiratory tract – it is a powerful respiratory antiseptic and is also decongestant. It has a strengthening effect on the lungs and can be used treat bronchial infections, such as bronchitis, asthma, flu, coughs an colds. It will clear mucus from chest and throat and catarrh from the sinuses.
This is a pleasant oil to add to the bath to ease aches and pains after a tiring day. It may also be used in compresses or massage oils to treat rheumatism, arthritis, sprains and strains.
Pine is a parasiticide against scabies and lice. It is also a good deodorant – use it as a footbath to treat smelly feet.
Cuts and abrasions, wounds, headline, scabies, excessive perspiration, arthritis, gout, muscular aches and pains, *poor circulation, rheumatism, respiratory ailments, cystitis, colds and ‘flu, neuralgia, fatigue, stress-related disorders.
Scots pine’s essential oil is one of the safest and mildest aromatherapy remedies. The aroma is soothing and provides rest and relaxation. It is not for nothing that we are attracted by the harmonious and clean environment of pine forests, which helps to forget fatigue, stress, regain strength. Pine essential oil has the same properties! This fragrance is especially suitable for people who work hard and suffer from stress.
Pine is appropriate if you have a strong tendency to feel guilty. You may have been repressed as a child and punished for having a rebellious spirit or nonconformist attitudes. You may come from a strongly religious background, expecting divine retribution for your sins. This type of early experience will tend to make you fearful of enjoyment and to negate inner feelings that may cause conflict. This can produce a tendency to rigidity and selfpunishment, and on the physical level induce tension and a tight chest. Using pine will help to break through all types of rigidity and will enable you to reconnect with your own sensitivity, affording you greater enjoyment and happiness in life.
Blends Well With
Essential oils of Bergamot, Cedarwood, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Juniper, Lavender, Lemon, Rosemary, Tea Tree.
Our safety advice
Because of its alpha-Pinene and sigma-3-Carene content we recommend that oxidation of Scots pine oil is avoided by storage in a dark, airtight container in a refrigerator.
Generally regarded as non-irritant, though there are many reports indicating that pine essence is a sensitising agent. Oils which are old and oxidised are much more likely to cause problems with irritation and sensitisation. The oil should be avoided by those with sensitive skin. Always use in low concentrations of around 1 per cent.
Other varieties of pine that are available as an essential oil include dwarf pine (Pinus pumilio or Pinus mugo) and also longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). Dwarf pine should not be used in aromatherapy as is a skin irritant and common sensitizer. Longleaf pine is the most common source of turpentine and is and frequently used in the USA. It shares very similar therapeutic properties
with Scots pine.
1. C. Wildwood “The Encyclopedia of Aromatherapy”, Vermont, Healing Arts Press, 1996
2. R. Tisserand, R. Young, E. M Williamson “Essential Oil Safety. A Guide for Health Care Professionals”, Churchill Livingstone ELSEVIER, 2014
3. S. Curtis “Essential Oils”, AURUM, London, 1996
4. R. Balz “The Healing Power of Essential Oils”, LOTUS LIGHT SHANGRI-LA, Twin Lakes, 1996
5. Л.ГДудченко, Г.П.Потебня, Н.А.Кривенко «Ароматерапия и аромамасаж», «Максимум», Киев, 1999